Biodiesel being green and better alternative fuel has many advantages over diesel fuel. It’s a renewable fuel, obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats. Low toxicity, in comparison with diesel fuel. Degrades more rapidly than diesel fuel, minimising the environmental consequences of biofuel spills. Lower emissions of contaminants: carbon monoxide, particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes. Lower health risk, due to reduced emissions of carcinogenic substances. No Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions and higher flash point (100℃ minimum).
Fundamental aspect History, definition, the basic structure of oil, feedstocks-edible and non-edible, methods of oil extraction (solvent extraction, mechanical), physical and chemical properties- acid value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value, density, viscosity, cetane number, refractive index, fatty acid composition.
Synthesis methods Methods for biodiesel synthesis (transesterification, pyrolysis, microwave technique, Ultrasonication, and supercritical techniques), Experimental parameters; role catalyst–homogeneous (both acid & base), heterogeneous (both acid & base) catalysis, nature of alcohol and its effect, the chemistry of transesterification process.
Analytical techniques for oil/biodiesel characterisation Introduction to spectroscopic techniques for oil/biodiesel analysis; basic principle of spectroscopic techniques, understanding of the chemistry of various functional groups, techniques for analysis - IR, Raman, thermogravimetric, NMR (1H and 13C) – instrumentation.
Engineering aspects of fuels Basic concepts of CI engine, types of engines, introduction to the combustion process in CI engine, engine performance parameters; BSFC, BP, BTE, and EGT, engine emission analysis of samples for CO2, UHC, NOx, CO, PM, Soot O2 gases, and fuel-air ratio,
Harmful Practices Related to Accusations of Witchcraft and Ritual Attacks: Challenges for Marginalized Groups
Stripping back the complexities: Vulnerability, the sex industry, and carceral feminism